What is Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder characterized by a group of symptoms resulting from damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess water from the blood. This condition allows proteins, normally retained in the blood, to leak into the urine, leading to various complications. Nephrotic syndrome is not a specific disease but rather a set of signs indicating kidney dysfunction.

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Causes Of Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic Syndrome

  • Minimal change disease: Most common in children, exact cause unknown.
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS): Scarring in the glomeruli (kidney filters).
  • Membranous nephropathy: Immune complex deposit on glomerular membranes.
  • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN): Thickening and inflammation of glomeruli.
  • Minimal change disease with focal features: Combination of minimal change and FSGS features.

Secondary (due to other conditions):

  • Diabetes: High blood sugar damages glomeruli.
  • Lupus (SLE): Autoimmune disease attacking glomeruli.
  • Amyloidosis: Protein buildup in glomeruli affecting filtration.
  • HIV and hepatitis B/C: Viruses affect glomeruli function.
  • Malaria and other infections: Immune response damages glomeruli.
  • Certain cancers: Hodgkin's lymphoma, leukemia, and others.
  • Hereditary causes: Rare, genetic mutations affecting glomeruli.
  • Medications: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and others.

Symptoms Of Nephrotic Syndrome

  • Swelling (edema): This is the most common symptom, often appearing around the eyes, ankles, feet, and hands.
  • Foamy urine: Protein leaking into the urine can cause it to appear bubbly or frothy.
  • High blood pressure: Due to fluid retention and hormonal changes.
  • Weight gain: Caused by fluid buildup, not fat gain.
  • Loss of appetite and fatigue: Due to the body's struggle to process nutrients and fight infection.
  • High cholesterol and triglycerides: A result of protein loss affecting fat metabolism.
  • Increased risk of infections: Due to low levels of antibodies in the blood.
  • Blood clots: Caused by changes in blood composition.
  • Abdominal pain: In some cases, especially with underlying kidney disease.

Who is at a Higher Risk?


  • Children between 2 and 6 years old: This is the most common age group for primary (idiopathic) nephrotic syndrome.
  • Adults between 20 and 50 years old: More likely to have secondary nephrotic syndrome caused by other underlying conditions.


  • Men slightly more likely than women: Though the reason for this is not fully understood.

Medical conditions:

  • Pre-existing kidney diseases: Glomerulonephritis, lupus, diabetes, amyloidosis.
  • Infections: Hepatitis B and C, HIV, malaria, strep throat (especially in children).
  • Allergies: Particularly severe or chronic allergic reactions.
  • Genetic factors: Family history of nephrotic syndrome, especially congenital forms.


  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Regular use can increase risk, particularly in people with pre-existing kidney issues.
  • Certain antibiotics: Rare cases linked to specific antibiotic use.

Other factors:

  • Obesity: May increase the risk of developing some forms of nephrotic syndrome.
  • Race and ethnicity: Asian populations may have a slightly higher risk for primary nephrotic syndrome.

How To Diagnose Nephrotic Syndrome?

  • Urinalysis: Initial test to check for protein, blood, and white blood cells in urine.
  • 24-hour urine collection: Measures the total amount of protein lost in urine over 24 hours.
  • Blood tests: Assess albumin levels, cholesterol and triglycerides, kidney function, and potential underlying conditions.
  • Imaging tests: Ultrasound or CT scan of kidneys to look for structural abnormalities.
  • Kidney biopsy: In some cases, a tissue sample from the kidney is examined under a microscope for definitive diagnosis.

Complications Of Nephrotic Syndrome

Increased risk of infections:

  • Decreased immune function due to protein loss in urine.
  • Higher susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and fungal infections.
  • Common infections include pneumonia, cellulitis, and peritonitis.


  • Increased blood viscosity and altered clotting factors.
  • Higher risk of blood clots in veins and arteries.
  • Deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and cerebral venous thrombosis are potential complications.

Cardiovascular problems:

  • High blood pressure (hypertension) due to fluid retention and electrolyte imbalances.
  • Increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and heart failure.
  • Dyslipidemia (elevated cholesterol and triglycerides) can also occur.

Hypovolemic crisis:

  • Fluid shifts from blood vessels to tissues leading to decreased blood volume.
  • Symptoms include abdominal pain, dizziness, and low blood pressure.
  • Can be a life-threatening complication if not managed promptly.

Other complications:

  • Malnutrition due to protein loss in urine.
  • Anemia due to decreased red blood cell production.
  • Hypocalcemia (low calcium levels) and bone disease.
  • Increased risk of acute kidney failure in severe cases.

Ayurvedic Treatment For Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome treatment in Ayurveda is gaining popularity due to its emphasis on natural remedies and lifestyle adjustments. Ayurvedic practitioners believe that imbalances in the body's doshas, particularly Vata, Pitta, and Kapha, contribute to various health issues, including kidney disorders. The best Ayurvedic treatment for nephrotic syndrome aims to restore this balance.

Ayurvedic therapies often include herbal remedies, dietary modifications, and lifestyle changes. These interventions are designed to address the root cause of nephrotic syndrome and promote overall well-being. The emphasis on personalized treatment plans ensures that individuals receive care tailored to their unique constitution.

Best Ayurvedic treatment for nephrotic syndrome involves the use of specific herbs known for their kidney-healing properties. Punarnava, Gokshura, and Kaasni are commonly recommended to support kidney function and reduce proteinuria. These herbs, when combined, work synergistically to alleviate symptoms and promote renal health.

Dietary modifications play a crucial role in Ayurvedic treatment. Individuals are advised to follow a kidney-friendly diet that includes foods like barley, gourd vegetables, and coriander. Avoiding excessive salt and protein intake is essential to prevent further strain on the kidneys.

Ayurvedic Medicine For Nephrotic Syndrome

Here are some Ayurvedic herbs that are used as nephrotic syndrome ayurvedic medicine:

  • Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris): Thought to have diuretic properties and may be used to support kidney function.
  • Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa): Traditionally used in Ayurveda for kidney and urinary tract health, considered a natural diuretic.
  • Varuna (Crataeva nurvala): Known for its diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties, traditionally used for urinary disorders.
  • Trikatu (a combination of ginger, black pepper, and long pepper): Believed to have digestive and detoxifying properties, may be used to support overall health.
  • Chandan (Santalum album): Believed to have cooling and soothing properties, may be used to support kidney health.
  • Amla (Emblica officinalis): Rich in vitamin C, believed to have antioxidant and detoxifying properties.
  • Shilajit: Thought to have rejuvenating properties and may be used to support overall kidney function.
  • Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia): Known for its immunomodulatory effects, may help support overall health, including kidney function.

Why Choose Karma Ayurveda

  • Holistic Approach: Focuses on addressing the root cause of nephrotic syndrome, not just managing symptoms, for long-term improvement.
  • Ayurvedic Expertise: Established in 1937, with extensive experience and success in treating kidney disorders with ancient Ayurvedic wisdom.
  • Personalized Treatment Plans: Tailored herbal medications and therapies based on individual needs and diagnosis.
  • Natural Remedies: Uses safe and effective herbal formulations with minimal side effects compared to conventional medications.
  • Proven Results: Numerous testimonials and success stories from patients who have experienced recovery and improved kidney function.
  • Experienced Team: Led by Dr. Puneet Dhawan, a renowned Ayurvedic nephrologist with a dedicated team of specialists.
  • Advanced Facilities: Offers comfortable and well-equipped hospital amenities for a holistic healing experience.
  • Multiple Locations: Choose from several branches across India for convenient access to treatment.
  • Patient-Centric Care: Provides personalized attention, support, and guidance throughout the treatment journey.
  • Focus on Overall Health: Promotes overall well-being through diet, lifestyle, and yoga alongside kidney treatment.

Certificate no- AH-2023-0186
JAN 05,2023-JAN 04,2026